OSDManager.py 33.3 KB
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import os
import pickle
import subprocess
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from urllib import request
import urllib.error
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import shutil
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import time
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import datetime
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import random
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import dataDistribution
import div_util
import folder
import dir_status_page_parser
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'''
xOSDManager - a python module to manage OSD selection in XtreemFS
currently only depth (level) 2 subdirectories can be managed
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only unix-based OSs are supported
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'''

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max_processes_change_policy = 200
max_processes_add_replica = 200
max_processes_delete_replica = 200
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# TODO add support for arbitrary subdirectory level
# (currently depth=2 is hardcoded, which is fine for GeoMultiSens purposes)
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class OSDManager(object):
    def __init__(self, path_to_managed_folder, config_file='.das_config', value_map=None, debug=False):

        self.managedFolder = path_to_managed_folder
        self.configFile = config_file
        self.debug = debug

        if value_map is None:

            if not div_util.check_for_executable('xtfsutil'):
                raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No xtfsutil found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")

            output_1 = subprocess.run(["xtfsutil", self.managedFolder], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE,
                                      universal_newlines=True)

            if output_1.stderr.startswith("xtfsutil failed: Path doesn't point to an entity on an XtreemFS volume!"):
                raise NotAXtreemFSVolume("The specified folder '" + path_to_managed_folder +
                                         "' is not part of an XtreemFS volume!")

            if len(output_1.stderr) > 0:
                raise Exception("xtfsutil produced some error: " + output_1.stderr)

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            self.pathOnVolume = div_util.remove_leading_trailing_slashes(
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                str(output_1.stdout).split("\n")[0].split()[-1])
            self.pathToMountPoint = self.managedFolder[0:(len(self.managedFolder) - len(self.pathOnVolume) - 1)]

            output_2 = subprocess.run(["xtfsutil", self.pathToMountPoint],
                                      stdout=subprocess.PIPE, universal_newlines=True)

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            self.volume_information = div_util.extract_volume_information(output_2.stdout)
            self.volumeName = self.volume_information[0]
            osd_list = list(map(lambda x: x[0], self.volume_information[1]))
            self.osdSelectionPolicy = self.volume_information[2]
            self.volumeAddress = self.volume_information[3]
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            self.distribution = None
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            if not self.__read_configuration():
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                self.distribution = dataDistribution.DataDistribution()
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            self.distribution.add_osd_list(osd_list)
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            self.osdInformation = None

            try:
                answer = request.urlopen(div_util.get_http_address(self.volumeAddress))
                html_data = answer.read().decode('UTF-8')

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                parser = dir_status_page_parser.dir_status_page_parser()
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                parser.feed(html_data)

                # filter out data sets without last update time or wrong service type
                filtered_data_sets = list(filter(lambda x: int(x['last updated'].split()[0]) != 0, parser.dataSets))
                filtered_data_sets = list(filter(lambda x: x['type'] == 'SERVICE_TYPE_OSD', filtered_data_sets))

                self.osdInformation = {}
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                for data_set in filtered_data_sets:
                    uuid = data_set['uuid']
                    current_osd = {}
                    current_osd['usable_space'] = int(data_set['usable'].split()[0])
                    current_osd['total_space'] = int(data_set['total'].split()[0])

                    self.osdInformation[uuid] = current_osd

            except urllib.error.URLError as error:
                print("osd information could not be fetched! Probably the http status page could not be found at:",
                      div_util.get_http_address(self.volumeAddress))
                print(error)
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        else:
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            try:
                self.pathOnVolume = value_map['path_on_volume']
                self.pathToMountPoint = value_map['path_to_mount']
                self.volumeName = value_map['volume_name']
                self.osdSelectionPolicy = value_map['osd_selection_policy']
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                self.distribution = value_map['data_distribution']
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                self.volumeAddress = value_map['volume_address']
                self.osdInformation = value_map['osd_information']
            except KeyError as error:
                print('key not found:', error)
                print('leaving in OSDManager field empty!')
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    def __read_configuration(self):
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        assert self.distribution is None
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        path_to_config = os.path.join(self.managedFolder, self.configFile)
        try:
            f = open(path_to_config, "rb")
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            self.distribution = pickle.load(f)
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            return True
        except IOError:
            return False

    def __write_configuration(self):
        path_to_config = os.path.join(self.managedFolder, self.configFile)
        f = open(path_to_config, "wb")
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        pickle.dump(self.distribution, f)
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    '''
    create a good data distribution out of data already present in the file system.
    the created data distribution will then be transferred to the physical layer,
    i.e., all files will be moved to their corresponding OSD,
    using XtreemFS' read-only replication strategy.
    '''

    def create_distribution_from_existing_files(self, apply_layout=True):
        if self.debug:
            print("creating distribution from existing files. osd manager: " + str(self))

        if not div_util.check_for_executable('du'):
            raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No du found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")

        existing_folders = self.get_assigned_folders()
        managed_folders = []
        for one_folder in existing_folders:
            du = subprocess.run(["du", "-s", one_folder], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
                                universal_newlines=True)
            folder_size = int(du.stdout.split()[0])
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            if folder_size == 0:
                folder_size = 1
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            new_folder = folder.Folder(self.path_on_volume(one_folder),
                                       folder_size,
                                       None)
            managed_folders.append(new_folder)

        new_assignments = self.distribution.add_folders(managed_folders)

        if apply_layout:
            self.apply_osd_assignments(new_assignments)
        elif self.debug:
            print("NOT applying data layout!")

        self.__write_configuration()

        if self.debug:
            print("osd manager after new folders have been added to data distribution:")
            print(str(self))

        self.fix_physical_layout()

    '''
    fixes the physical layout, such that it matches the data distribution described in self.distribution
    we use the following strategy: first, determine which files needs to be moved to another OSD, and create three lists.
    for each file to be moved, one contains the command to set the default replication policy (1), one contains the command
    to create a new replica on the target OSD (2) and one contains the command to delete the replica on the original OSD (3).
    the command-lists are executed in order: 1, 2, 3, commands of list i only being executed if all commands of list i-1
    have returned. the commands of any one list are executed in parallel, with an upper bound of 200 parallel executions
    to not violate the maximum number of processes of the OS.

    the commands of list 3 might return an error, as deleting the replica on the original OSD is not possible until
    the new replica on the target OSD is complete. theses commands are collected and re-executed after a certain delay.
    this process is repeated until no error is returned, which should eventually happen (as soon as all new replicas on
    the target OSDs are complete).

    '''

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    def fix_physical_layout(self, repeat_delete_interval_secs=15, iteration=0):
        if self.debug:
            print("starting to fix physical layout...this is fix-iteration " + str(iteration))
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        # list 1
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        change_policy_command_list = []
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        # list 2
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        create_replica_command_list = []
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        # list 3
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        delete_replica_command_list = []

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        # create commands
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        managed_folders = self.get_assigned_folders()
        for managed_folder in managed_folders:
            for directory in os.walk(managed_folder):
                for filename in directory[2]:

                    absolute_file_path = os.path.join(directory[0], filename)
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                    osds_of_file = div_util.get_osd_uuids(absolute_file_path)
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                    path_on_volume = self.path_on_volume(absolute_file_path)
                    containing_folder_id = self.get_containing_folder_id(path_on_volume)
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                    osd_for_file = self.distribution.get_containing_osd(containing_folder_id).uuid
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                    file_on_correct_osd = False
                    for osd_of_file in osds_of_file:
                        if osd_of_file != osd_for_file:
                            # delete all replicas on wrong OSDs
                            delete_command = div_util.create_delete_replica_command(absolute_file_path, osd_of_file)
                            delete_replica_command_list.append(div_util.command_list_to_single_string(delete_command))
                        else:
                            file_on_correct_osd = True

                    if not file_on_correct_osd and len(osds_of_file) < 2:
                        # only one replica on a wrong OSD => need to set replication policy.
                        # otherwise, there is a unique replica on the correct OSD => no change necessary,
                        # OR there are multiple replicas => replication policy must be set.
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                        policy_command = div_util.create_replication_policy_command(absolute_file_path)
                        change_policy_command_list.append(div_util.command_list_to_single_string(policy_command))
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                    if not file_on_correct_osd:
                        # create a replica on the correct osd
                        create_command = div_util.create_create_replica_command(absolute_file_path, osd_for_file)
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                        create_replica_command_list.append(div_util.command_list_to_single_string(create_command))
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        # end of recursion condition
        if len(create_replica_command_list) == 0 and len(delete_replica_command_list) == 0:
            if self.debug:
                print("fixing physical layout done after " + str(iteration) + " fix-iterations.")
            return

            # run commands
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        start_time = time.time()
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        if self.debug:
            print("starting execution of change policy commands...")
            print(str(datetime.datetime.now()))
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        errored_processes = div_util.run_commands(change_policy_command_list, max_processes_change_policy)
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        end_time = time.time()
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        if self.debug:
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            print("executing " + str(len(change_policy_command_list)) + " change policy commands done in " +
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                  str(round(end_time - start_time)) + " sec.")
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            # div_util.print_process_list(processes)
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        start_time = time.time()
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        if self.debug:
            print("starting execution of create replica commands...")
            print(str(datetime.datetime.now()))
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        random.shuffle(create_replica_command_list)
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        errored_processes = div_util.run_commands(create_replica_command_list, max_processes_add_replica)
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        end_time = time.time()
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        if self.debug:
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            print("executing " + str(len(create_replica_command_list)) + " create replica commands done in " +
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                  str(round(end_time - start_time)) + " sec.")
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            # div_util.print_process_list(processes)
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        start_time = time.time()
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        if self.debug:
            print("starting execution of delete replica commands...")
            print(str(datetime.datetime.now()))
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        errored_processes = div_util.run_commands(delete_replica_command_list, max_processes_delete_replica,
                                                  print_errors=False)
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        # run and repeat delete commands, until they return no error
        # (if an error is returned for another reason than that one would delete the last complete replica,
        # this will probably not work.
        iterations = 0
        max_iterations = 5000  # e.g. approximately 24h with the default repeat interval of 15 secs
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        while True:
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            if iterations >= max_iterations:
                print("results of last iteration: ")
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                div_util.print_process_list(errored_processes)
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                print("Original replicas could not be deleted after " + str(max_iterations) + ". Aborting...")
                break

            if self.debug:
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                print("executing " + str(len(delete_replica_command_list))
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                      + " delete replica commands done. This is delete-iteration "
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                      + str(iterations))
                # div_util.print_process_list(processes)
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            errored_deletions = []

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            for process in errored_processes:
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                # check the return code. if it is one, the replica could not be deleted, so we try again later.
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                if process[2] != 0:
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                    errored_deletions.append(process[0])
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                    print("errored command: ")
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                    print("command: " + str(process[0]))
                    print("stdoud: " + str(process[1][0]))
                    print("stderr: " + str(process[1][1]))
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                    print("retcode: " + str(process[2]))
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            if len(errored_deletions) == 0:
                break

            time.sleep(repeat_delete_interval_secs)

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            if self.debug:
                print("rerunning " + str(len(errored_deletions)) + " commands because replica could not be deleted...")

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            errored_processes = div_util.run_commands(errored_deletions, max_processes_change_policy,
                                                      print_errors=False)
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            iterations += 1
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        if self.debug:
            end_time = time.time()
            print("deleting replicas done in in " + str(round(end_time - start_time)) + " sec.")

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        self.fix_physical_layout(iteration=iteration + 1)

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    '''
    create empty folders and assign OSDs.
    '''

    def create_empty_folders(self, folders):
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        average_size = int(self.distribution.get_average_folder_size())
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        if average_size <= 0:
            average_size = 1

        tiles = []

        for input_folder in folders:
            new_tile = folder.Folder(self.path_on_volume(input_folder), average_size, None)
            tiles.append(new_tile)

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        new_tiles = self.distribution.add_folders(tiles)
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        self.apply_osd_assignments(new_tiles)

        for input_folder in folders:
            os.makedirs(input_folder, exist_ok=True)

        self.__write_configuration()

    '''
    copy a list of given folders into the managed folder, assigning OSDs to new folders and updating
    self.dataDistribution
    '''

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    def copy_folders(self, folders, environment='LOCAL', remote_source=None, sshfs_mount_dir='/tmp/sshfs_tmp_mnt',
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                     apply_layout=True, execute_copy=True, random_osd_assignment=False):
        if self.debug:
            print("calling copy_folders with:")
            print("folders: " + str(folders))
            print("environment: " + str(environment))
            print("remote_source: " + str(remote_source))
            print("sshfs_mount_dir: " + str(sshfs_mount_dir))
            print("apply_layout: " + str(apply_layout))
            print("execute_copy: " + str(execute_copy))
            print("random_osd_assignemnt: " + str(random_osd_assignment))

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        if not div_util.check_for_executable('du'):
            raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No du found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")

        if remote_source is not None:
            if not div_util.check_for_executable('sshfs'):
                raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No sshfs found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")
            if not div_util.check_for_executable('scp'):
                raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No scp found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")
            if not div_util.check_for_executable('fusermount'):
                raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No fusermount found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")

        if remote_source is not None:
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            os.makedirs(sshfs_mount_dir, exist_ok=True)
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        new_folders = []

        for input_folder in folders:
            last_2_path_elements = os.path.join(os.path.split(os.path.split(input_folder)[0])[1],
                                                os.path.split(input_folder)[1])
            if remote_source is not None:
                mount_point = os.path.join(sshfs_mount_dir, last_2_path_elements)
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                os.makedirs(mount_point, exist_ok=True)
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                subprocess.run(["sshfs", remote_source + ":" + input_folder, mount_point])
                du = subprocess.run(["du", "-s", mount_point], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
                                    universal_newlines=True)
                subprocess.run(["fusermount", "-uz", mount_point])
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                shutil.rmtree(mount_point)
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                folder_size = int(du.stdout.split()[0])
            else:
                du = subprocess.run(["du", "-s", input_folder], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
                                    universal_newlines=True)
                folder_size = int(du.stdout.split()[0])

            new_folder = folder.Folder(os.path.join(self.volumeName, self.pathOnVolume, last_2_path_elements),
                                       folder_size,
                                       input_folder)
            if self.debug:
                print("new folder: " + str(new_folder))

            new_folders.append(new_folder)

        if remote_source is not None:
            shutil.rmtree(sshfs_mount_dir)
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        if self.debug:
            print("OSDManager: random_osd_assignment: " + str(random_osd_assignment))
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        new_assignments = self.distribution.add_folders(new_folders, random_osd_assignment=random_osd_assignment)
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        if apply_layout:
            self.apply_osd_assignments(new_assignments)
        elif self.debug:
            print("NOT applying data layout!")
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        self.__write_configuration()

        if self.debug:
            print("osd manager after new folders have been added to data distribution:")
            print(str(self))

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        if execute_copy:
            self.__copy_data(new_folders, environment, remote_source)
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    '''
    moves a folder from one OSD to another OSD. you may specify a temporary folder.
    '''

    def move_folder_to_osd(self, folder_id: str, new_osd_id: str, tmp_dir='/tmp/move_folder_tmp_dir'):
        folder_path = os.path.join(self.get_target_dir(folder_id),
                                   os.path.split(folder_id)[1])

        os.makedirs(tmp_dir)

        if not div_util.check_for_executable('xtfsutil'):
            raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No xtfsutil found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")
        # step 1: add folder to new OSD, update data distribution and xtreemfs configuration
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        self.distribution.assign_new_osd(folder_id, new_osd_id)
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        if self.debug:
            subprocess.run(["xtfsutil",
                            "--set-pattr", "1004.filenamePrefix", "--value",
                            "add " + folder_id + " " + new_osd_id + "", self.pathToMountPoint])
        else:
            subprocess.run(["xtfsutil",
                            "--set-pattr", "1004.filenamePrefix", "--value",
                            "add " + folder_id + " " + new_osd_id + "", self.pathToMountPoint],
                           stdout=subprocess.PIPE, universal_newlines=True)

        # step 2: one by one, move files to tmp_location and then back to the folder, which means that they should now
        # be located onto the new OSD.

        for root, dirs, files in os.walk(folder_path):
            for file in files:
                current_file_path = os.path.join(root, file)
                copied_file_path = os.path.join(tmp_dir, file)
                shutil.move(current_file_path, copied_file_path)
                shutil.move(copied_file_path, current_file_path)

        shutil.rmtree(tmp_dir, ignore_errors=True)

    '''
    removes a folder from the distribution. this does NOT delete the folder from the file system.
    '''

    def remove_folder(self, folder_id):
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        containing_osd = self.distribution.get_containing_osd(folder_id)
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        if containing_osd is not None:
            if not div_util.check_for_executable('xtfsutil'):
                raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No xtfsutil found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")

            containing_osd.remove_folder(folder_id)
            if self.debug:
                subprocess.run(["xtfsutil",
                                "--set-pattr", "1004.filenamePrefix", "--value",
                                "remove " + folder_id + "", self.pathToMountPoint])
            else:
                subprocess.run(["xtfsutil",
                                "--set-pattr", "1004.filenamePrefix", "--value",
                                "remove " + folder_id + "", self.pathToMountPoint],
                               stdout=subprocess.PIPE, universal_newlines=True)

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    '''
    update the given (by absolute path) folders, such that the values held by self.dataDistribution
    matches their size on disk.
    if no argument is given, all folders are updated.
    '''

    def update(self, arg_folders=None):

        if arg_folders is not None:
            for folder_for_update in arg_folders:
                if not folder_for_update.startswith(self.managedFolder):
                    raise PathNotManagedException(
                        "The path :" + folder_for_update + "is not managed by this instance of the XtreemFS OSD"
                                                           "manager!")

        folder_size_updates = {}

        folders = arg_folders
        if arg_folders is None:
            folders = self.get_assigned_folders()

        for folder_for_update in folders:
            folder_id = self.path_on_volume(folder_for_update)
            command = ["du", "-s", folder_for_update]
            if self.debug:
                print("executing: " + str(command))
            du = subprocess.run(command, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, universal_newlines=True)
            folder_disk_size = int(du.stdout.split()[0])
            folder_size_updates[folder_id] = folder_disk_size

        for folder_for_update, size in folder_size_updates.items():
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            self.distribution.update_folder(folder_for_update, size)
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        self.__write_configuration()

        if self.debug:
            print(str(self))

    '''
    apply the given assignments to the XtreemFS volume, using xtfsutil.
    the assignments are given as a list containing tuples (tile_id, osd),
    where tile_id is given by applying path_on_volume() onto the absolute path of the folder.
    '''

    def apply_osd_assignments(self, assignments):
        if not div_util.check_for_executable('xtfsutil'):
            raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No xtfsutil found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")

        if self.osdSelectionPolicy is not "1000,1004":
            if self.debug:
                subprocess.run(["xtfsutil", "--set-osp", "prefix", self.pathToMountPoint])
            else:
                subprocess.run(["xtfsutil", "--set-osp", "prefix", self.pathToMountPoint],
                               stdout=subprocess.PIPE, universal_newlines=True)

        for new_tile in assignments:
            if self.debug:
                subprocess.run(["xtfsutil",
                                "--set-pattr", "1004.filenamePrefix", "--value",
                                "add " + new_tile[0] + " " + new_tile[1] + "",
                                self.pathToMountPoint])
            else:
                subprocess.run(["xtfsutil",
                                "--set-pattr", "1004.filenamePrefix", "--value",
                                "add " + new_tile[0] + " " + new_tile[1] + "",
                                self.pathToMountPoint],
                               stdout=subprocess.PIPE, universal_newlines=True)

    '''
    copy data onto XtreemFS volume
    '''

    def __copy_data(self, input_folders, environment, remote_source):
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        if self.debug:
            print('calling copy_data with: ', input_folders, environment, remote_source)
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        osd_list = self.distribution.get_osd_list()
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        osd_to_folders_map = {}
        for osd in osd_list:
            osd_to_folders_map[osd] = []
        for input_folder in input_folders:
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            osd_for_tile = self.distribution.get_containing_osd(input_folder.id).uuid
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            osd_to_folders_map[osd_for_tile].append(input_folder)

        if self.debug:
            print("osd to folders map:")
            for key, value in osd_to_folders_map.items():
                print("osd: " + key)
                print("assigned folders:")
                for input_folder in value:
                    print(str(input_folder))

        # trigger the copying!
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        if environment == "SLURM":
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            assert remote_source is not None
            copy_commands = self.__generate_copy_commands_slurm(osd_to_folders_map, remote_source)
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        elif environment == "HU_CLUSTER":
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            copy_commands = self.__generate_copy_commands_hu_cluster(osd_to_folders_map)
        else:
            copy_commands = self.__generate_copy_commands_local(osd_to_folders_map)

        for input_folder in input_folders:
            path_to_target_dir = self.get_target_dir(input_folder.id)
            os.makedirs(path_to_target_dir, exist_ok=True)

        self.__execute_copy_commands(copy_commands)

    '''
    generates a list of copy commands, one command for each OSD that receives new data.
    the copy commands are constructed such that they can be executed in a slurm environment (that is, within a slurm job
    allocation) at ZIB.
    each command is a copy command including all new folders for the corresponding OSD, preceded by a srun command
    to execute the copy command locally on the slurm node on which the target OSD resides.
    '''

    def __generate_copy_commands_slurm(self, osd_to_folders_map, remote_source):
        if self.debug:
            print("Using SLURM mode for copying...")

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        slurm_hosts = div_util.get_slurm_hosts()

        if self.debug:
            print('slurm_hosts: ', slurm_hosts)

        osd_to_host_map = div_util.get_osd_to_hostname_map(self.volume_information[1], slurm_hosts)

        if self.debug:
            print('osd_to_host_map: ', osd_to_host_map)
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        command_list = []

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        host_name = ""
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        # command = ""
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        for key in osd_to_folders_map.keys():
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            if host_name == "":
                host_name = osd_to_host_map[key]
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            command = ""
            for copy_folder in osd_to_folders_map[key]:
                command += "srun -N1-1 --nodelist=" + host_name
                command += " scp -rq " + remote_source + ":" + copy_folder.origin
                command += " " + self.get_target_dir(copy_folder.id)
                command += " ;"
            if len(osd_to_folders_map[key]) > 0:
                command_list.append(command)
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        # command_list.append(command)
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        return command_list

    '''
    generates a list of copy commands, one command for each OSD that receives new data.
    the copy commands are constructed such that they can be executed on the GeoMultiSens cluster at HU Berlin.
    each command is a copy command including all new folders for the corresponding OSD, preceded by a ssh command
    to execute the copy command locally on the node of the target OSD.
    '''

    def __generate_copy_commands_hu_cluster(self, osd_to_folders_map):
        if self.debug:
            print("Using HU_CLUSTER mode for copying...")

        if not div_util.check_for_executable('xtfsutil'):
            raise ExecutableNotFoundException("No xtfsutil found. Please make sure it is contained in your PATH.")

        xtfsutil = subprocess.run(["xtfsutil", self.pathToMountPoint],
                                  stdout=subprocess.PIPE, universal_newlines=True)
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        volume_information = div_util.extract_volume_information(xtfsutil.stdout)
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        osd_to_ip_address = {}
        for (osd, ip) in volume_information[1]:
            osd_to_ip_address[osd] = ip

        command_list = []

        for key in osd_to_folders_map.keys():
            ip_address = osd_to_ip_address[key]
            command = "ssh " + ip_address + " \'"
            for copy_folder in osd_to_folders_map[key]:
                command += " cp -r"
                command += " " + copy_folder.origin
                command += " " + self.get_target_dir(copy_folder.id)
                command += " ;"
            command += " \' "
            if len(osd_to_folders_map[key]) > 0:
                command_list.append(command)

        return command_list

    '''
    generates a list of copy commands, one command for each OSD that receives new data.
    plain old cp is used for the actual copying.
    '''

    def __generate_copy_commands_local(self, osd_to_folders_map):
        if self.debug:
            print("Using local cp for copying...")

        command_list = []

        for key in osd_to_folders_map.keys():
            command = ""
            for copy_folder in osd_to_folders_map[key]:
                command += "cp -r "
                command += copy_folder.origin
                command += " " + self.get_target_dir(copy_folder.id)
                command += " ; "

            if len(osd_to_folders_map[key]) > 0:
                command_list.append(command)

        return command_list

    '''
    execute, in parallel, a given set of commands. note that the degree of parallelism will match the length of
    command_list.
    '''

    def __execute_copy_commands(self, command_list):
        if self.debug:
            print("Executing copy commands: ")
            for command in command_list:
                print(str(command))
            print("in total " + str(len(command_list)) + " commands.")
        processes = []
        for command in command_list:
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            process = subprocess.Popen(command, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, shell=True)
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            time.sleep(5)
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            processes.append(process)

        for p in processes:
            p.wait()

        if self.debug:
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            for terminated_process in processes:
                print(str(terminated_process.communicate()))
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            print("Executing copy commands done.")

    '''
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    creates a list of all folders, managed by this XtreemFS OSD manager, that have an assigned OSD
    TODO this actually just returns a list of all level 2 subdirectories, independently of whether they are actually
    assigned to some OSD or not. i think that this is not the expected behaviour.
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    '''

    def get_assigned_folders(self):
        assigned_folders = []
        for depth_1_folder in os.listdir(self.managedFolder):
            depth_1_path = os.path.join(self.managedFolder, depth_1_folder)
            if os.path.isdir(depth_1_path):
                for depth_2_folder in os.listdir(depth_1_path):
                    depth_2_path = os.path.join(self.managedFolder, depth_1_folder, depth_2_folder)
                    if os.path.isdir(depth_2_path):
                        assigned_folders.append(depth_2_path)

        return assigned_folders

    '''
    gets the path to the target dir, given the folder_id
    '''
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    def get_target_dir(self, folder_id):
        path_on_mount_point = folder_id[len(self.volumeName) + 1:]
        return os.path.split(os.path.join(self.pathToMountPoint, path_on_mount_point))[0]

    '''
    remove the leading part of the path, such that only the part onto the xtreemfs volume remains, including
    the volume itself.
    throws an exception when the path is not managed by this XtreemFS OSD manager.
    '''

    def path_on_volume(self, path):
        if not path.startswith(self.managedFolder):
            raise PathNotManagedException("Path " + path + " is not managed by this instance of the XtreemFS OSD"
                                                           "manager!")
        return os.path.join(self.volumeName, path[len(self.pathToMountPoint) + 1:])

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    '''
    search for the assigned folder that is a prefix of the given path on volume
    '''
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    def get_containing_folder_id(self, path_on_volume):
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        for osd in self.distribution.OSDs.values():
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            for a_folder in osd.folders:
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                if path_on_volume.startswith(a_folder):
                    return a_folder
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        return None

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    def __str__(self):
        representation = "pathToMountPoint: " + self.pathToMountPoint + " volumeName: " + self.volumeName + " pathOnVolume: " \
                         + self.pathOnVolume
        representation += ("\nconfigFile: " + self.configFile + "\n")
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        representation += self.distribution.description()
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        return representation


class ExecutableNotFoundException(Exception):
    """raise this when an external executable can not be found"""


class NotAXtreemFSVolume(Exception):
    """raise this when a path does not point to a folder on a xtreemfs volume"""


class PathNotManagedException(Exception):
    """raise this when a path is handled, that is not managed by xOSDManager"""